Tag Archives: Astrometry

An interstellar asteroid

Hi there! You may have heard this week of our Solar System visited by an asteroid probably formed in another planetary system. This is why I have decided to speak about it, so this article will not be based on a peer-reviewed scientific publication, but on good science anyway. The name of this visitor is for now A/2017 U1.

History of the discovery

Discovering a new object usually consists in

  1. Taking a picture of a part of a sky. Usually these are parts of the order of the degree, maybe much less… so, small parts. And this also requires to treat the image, to correct for atmospheric (brightness of the sky, wind,…) and instrumental (dead pixels…) effects,
  2. Comparing in with the objects, which are known to be in that field.

If there is an unexpected object, then it could be a discovery. Here is the history of the discovery of A/2017 U1:

  • Oct. 19, 2017: Robert Weryk, a researcher of the University of Hawaii, discovers a new object while searching for Near-Earth Asteroids with the Pan-STARRS 1 telescope. An examination of images archives revealed that the object had already been photographed the day before.
  • Oct. 25, 2017: The Minor Planet Center (Circular MPEC 2017-U181) gives orbital elements for this new object, from 34 observations over 6 days, from Oct. 18 to 24. Surprisingly, an eccentricity bigger than 1 (1.1897018) is announced, which means that the trajectory follows a hyperbola. This means that if this object would be affected only by the Sun, then it would come from an infinite distance, and would leave us for infinity. In other words, this object would not be fated to remain in our Solar System. That day, the object was thought to be a comet, and named C/2017 U1. 10 observation sites were involved (once an object has been detected and located, it is easier to re-observe it, even with a smaller telescope).
  • Oct. 26, 2017: Update by the Minor Planet Center (Circular MPEC 2017-U185), using 47 observations from Oct. 14 on. The object is renamed A/2017 U1, i.e. from comet “C” to asteroid “A”, since no cometary activity has been detected. Same day: the press release announcing the first confirmed discovery of an interstellar object. New estimation of the eccentricity: e = 1.1937160.
  • Oct. 27, 2017: Update by the Minor Planet Center (Circular MPEC 2017-U234), using 68 observations. New estimation of the eccentricity: e = 1.1978499.

And this is our object! It has an absolute magnitude of 22.2 and a diameter probably smaller than 400 meters. These days, spectroscopic observations have revealed a red object, alike the KBOs (Kuiper Belt Objects). It approached our Earth as close as 15 millions km (0.1 astronomical unit), i.e. one tenth of the Sun-Earth distance.

The trajectory of A/2017 U1.
The trajectory of A/2017 U1.

What are these objects?

The existence of such objects is predicted since more than 40 years, in particular by Fred Whipple and Viktor Safronov. This is how they come to us:

  1. A protoplanetary disk creates a star, planets, and small objects,
  2. The small objects are very sensitive to the gravitational perturbations of the planets. As a consequence, they may be ejected from their planetary system, and become interstellar objects,
  3. They visit us.

Calculations indicate that A/2017 U1 comes roughly from the constellation Lyra, in which the star Vega is (only…) at 25 lightyears from our Sun. It is tempting to assume that A/2017 U1 was formed around Vega, but that would be only speculation, since many perturbations could have altered its trajectory. Several studies will undoubtedly address this problem within next year.

Maybe not the first one

Here we have an eccentricity, which is significantly larger (some 20%) than 1. Moreover, our object has a very inclined orbit, which means that we can neglect the perturbations of its orbit by the giant planets. In other words, it entered the Solar System on the trajectory we see now. But a Solar System object can get a hyperbolic orbit, and eventually be ejected. This means that when we detect an object with a very high eccentricity, like a long-period comet, it does not necessary mean that it is an interstellar object. In the past, some known objects have been proposed to be possible interstellar ones. This is for example the case for the comet C/2007 W1 (Boattini), which eccentricity is estimated to be 1.000191841611794±0.000041198 at the date May 26, 2008. It could be an IC (Interstellar Comet), but could also be an Oort cloud object, put on a hyperbolic orbit by the giant planets.

Detecting interstellar objects

A/2017 U1 object has been detected by the Pan-STARRS (for Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System) 1 telescope, which is located at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii. Pan-STARRS is constituted of two 1.8 m Ritchey–Chrétien telescopes, with a field-of-view of 3°. This is very large compared with classical instruments, and it is suitable for detection of bodies. It operates since 2010.

Detections could be expected from the future Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which should operate from 2022 on. This facility will be a 8.4-meter telescope based in Chile, and will conduct surveys with a field-of-view of 3.5°. A recent study by Nathaniel Cook et al. suggests that LSST could detect between 0.001 and 10 interstellar comets during its nominal 10 year lifetime. Of course, 0.001 detection should be understood as the result of a formula. The authors give a range of 4 orders of magnitude in their estimation, which reflects how barely constrained the theoretical models are. This also means that we could be just lucky to have detected one.

What Pan-STARRS can do, LSST should be able to do. In a few years, i.e. in the late 2020s, the number or absence of new discoveries will tell us something on the efficiency of creation of interstellar objects in the nearby stars. Meanwhile, let us enjoy this exciting discovery!

The press release and its authors

That’s it for today! Please do not forget to comment. You can also subscribe to the RSS feed, and follow me on Twitter and Facebook.

Where is Triton?

Hi there! Today’s post is on the location of Triton. Triton is the largest satellite of Neptune and, of course, we know where it is. The paper I present you, entitled Precise CCD positions of Triton in 2014-2016 using the newest Gaia DR1 star catalog, aims at assisting an accurate modeling of its motion. This is a Chinese study, by Na Wang, Qing-Yu Peng, Huan-Wen Peng, H.J. Xie, S. Ma and Q.F. Zhang, which presents observations made at the Yunnan Observatory. This study has recently been published in The Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Triton’s facts

Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune, with a mean radius of 1,350 km. It was discovered almost simultaneously with Neptune, i.e. 17 days later, in 1846. It orbits Neptune in a little less than 6 days, and rotates synchronously.

Surprisingly, its orbit is very inclined with respect to the equator of Neptune (some 24°), and it is retrograde… which means that the inclination should not be given as 24° but as 180-24 = 156°. Usually the satellites have a very small inclination, since they are supposed to have been formed in a nebula which gave birth to the planet. Such a large inclination means that Triton has probably not been formed in situ but was an asteroid, which has been trapped by Neptune. Since then, it loses some orbital energy, which has resulted in a circularization of its orbit and a fall on Neptune.

Triton has been visited by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1989, which covered about 40% of its surface. It revealed an atmosphere of nitrogen and evidences of melting, which indicate a geological activity, probably resulting in a differentiated body. It could even harbor or have harbored a subsurface ocean.

Astrometry in the Solar System

The goal of the paper I present today is to give accurate positions of Triton. This is called astrometry. The idea is this: measuring accurately the position of a body at a given date requires to take a picture of the satellite. Stars must be present in the field since the satellite will be positioned according to them. The result will then be compared to the predictions given by dynamical models, called ephemerides. Since we observe only in 2 dimensions, i.e. on the celestial sphere, which is a surface, then an astrometric position consists of two coordinates: the right ascension and the declination.

The positions of the stars surrounding the satellite, actually its image projected on the celestial sphere, since the stars are much further, are known thanks to systematic surveys. The satellite Gaia is currently conducting the most accurate of such surveys ever performed, and the first data were released in 2016, in the Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1, see this post, from October 2016). The accuracy of Gaia lets us hope very accurate future astrometry, and even past, since old observations could be retreated in using Gaia’s catalog.

But why making astrometry? For improving the ephemerides, which would give us a better knowledge of the orbital motion of the satellite. And why improving the ephemerides? I see at least two reasons:

  1. To help future space missions,
  2. To have a better knowledge of the physical properties of the bodies. Some of these properties, like the mass and the energy dissipation (tides), affect the orbital motion.

Potential difficulties

This study presents Earth-based observations, which are affected by:

  1. Diffraction on the CCD chip. When you observe a point as a light-source, you actually see a diffraction disk, and you have to decide which point on the disk is the position of your object. You can partly limit the size of the diffraction disk in limiting the exposure time, this prevents the chip from being saturated. If this results in a too faint object, then you can add several images.
  2. The anisotropy of the light scattering by the surface of the body (here Triton). When we see Triton, we actually see the Solar light, which is reflected by the surface of Triton. Since the surface could be pretty rough, since the limb is darker than the center because of a different incidence angle, and since Triton is not seen as a whole disk (remember the lunar crescent), then the center of the diffraction disk, i.e. the photocentre, is not exactly the location of the body.
  3. The refraction by the atmosphere. The atmosphere distorts the image, which makes the satellite-based images more accurate than the Earth-based ones. This distortion depends on the location of the observatory, and the weather. Some systems of adaptive optics exist, which partly overcome this problem.
  4. The aberration. The relative velocity of the observed object with the observer (the Earth is moving, remember?) alters the apparent position of the objects.
  5. The seeing. When you have some wind, the locations of the stars present some erratic variations.
  6. The inhomogeneity of the CCD chip. An homogeneous lightning will not result in a homogeneous response, because of the positions of the pixel on the image (you have a better sensitivity in the center than close to an edge), and some technical differences between the pixels. A way to overcome this problem is to normalize the light measurement by a flat image, which is the response to a homogeneous lightning. This is usually obtained in taking a picture in the dome, or from the averaging of many images.

This paper

This paper presents 775 new observations, i.e. 775 new positions of Triton at given dates, between 2014 and 2016. The images were taken with a 1-meter refractor at the Yunnan National Observatory, Kunming, Yunnan, China. The residuals, i.e. observed minus predicted positions, are obtained from the ephemerides made by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, USA. The authors obtain mean residuals of a few tens of milli-arcsec, i.e. some thousands of kilometers. Something interesting is the dispersion of these residuals: the authors show that when the stars are positioned with Gaia DR1, the residuals are much less dispersed than with an older catalog. The authors used the catalog UCAC4, released in August 2012 by the US Naval Observatory, for comparison.

These new observations will enrich the databases and permit the future improvements of ephemerides.

Some links

That’s all for today! Please do not forget to comment. You can also subscribe to the RSS feed, and follow me on Twitter.

The first release of Gaia astrometric data

Hi there! Today is a little bit different, since I will tell you about positions of stars in the sky. WTF??? No Solar System today? Well, actually this is very useful for studying the Solar System. This deals with astrometry, which tells you where your object is.
Another difference with the usual business is that I do not present you a paper, but a series of paper. I have counted 6 papers related to this first release of Gaia data, i.e. the Gaia DR1, for Gaia Data Release 1. They will be published soon in Astronomy and Astrophysics, and some of them are freely available on arXiv. The Gaia Data Release 1 was made available online on Sept, 14th.

Why astrometry?

When you want to study Solar System objects, you need to know where they are, especially if you study their orbital motion, but not only. For that, you use stars as fixed enough reference points, with respect to which you will locate your planetary object of interest. Actually, the stars have some motion with respect to the observer. They have their proper motion, since our galaxy is moving, and a parallax effect, which is a consequence of the motion of the Earth. If you observe something that does not move while you are moving, you will see an apparent motion. This motion will be all the more significant that the object is closer. These problems motivate the use of even further objects, the quasars, with respect to which the stars will be located. These quasars, for quasi-stellar radio-sources, are actually galaxies with an active nucleus. As galaxies, they are further from us than the observed stars, which belong to our galaxy. Moreover, they are brighter, which make them ideal reference points for defining reference frames, in which the stars will be positioned.

One of the goals of the Gaia mission is to elaborate the most accurate and exhaustive catalog giving the positions of stars.

The first space experiment devoted to high precision astrometry was Hipparcos, for High precision parallax collecting satellite. It was made by the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989, and has operated until 1993. It could detect light sources until the magnitude 12.5. It resulted in 3 catalogs: Hipparcos, Tycho-1 and Tycho-2.

The Hipparcos catalog was constituted of 118,218 entries, giving astrometric and photometric data for almost all of them. The astrometric data were composed of 6 elements: right ascension and declination, which locate the object on the sky, the parallax, which is related to its distance, the proper motion in right ascension and declination, and its radial velocity, i.e. the time variation of its distance.

A more extensive analysis of the stars detected by Hipparcos resulted in 2 more comprehensive catalogs, Tycho-1 and Tycho-2, constituted of respectively 1,058,332 and 2,539,913 entries. Tycho-2 was the most accurate catalog we disposed on until this first release of Gaia data. It gives astrometric data at the mean date J1991.25.

Gaia is an astrometric satellite made by ESA and launched in December 2013. It orbits close to the Lagrange point L2 of the Sun-Earth system. This means that it lies between the Sun and the Earth, at a distance of 1.5 millions km from the Earth, and that its orbit is very stable, since the gravitational attraction of the Earth balances the one of the Sun, at that place. This pretty limited distance from the Earth allows a high rate of data transmission (40 Gbyte / day). From that place, Gaia makes systematic scans of the sky during its 5-years operational phase, which has started on July 25th 2014. It is composed of 2 telescopes with a very stable angle between them, and the whole sky shall be observed 70 times during the 5-years nominal mission.

Gaia can detect light sources up to the magnitude 20. This will permit the discovery of unknown Solar System objects, like asteroids or comets, but also of exoplanets. The discovery of a supernova, named Gaia14aaa, has been announced in September 2014. Moreover, the accurate determination of the proper motion of the stars shall give us an accurate picture of the motion of our galaxy, and permit a better knowledge of the position of the stars in the past and in the future. This shall help to redetermine astrometric position of Solar System objects on old astrometric planets, and so refine their orbital ephemerides, as proposed by the NAROO (New Astrometric Reduction of Old Observations) project.

The Data Release 1

The Data Release 1 has been released on Sep, 14th 2016. It contains positions of more than one billion of stars brighter than magnitude 20.7, and proper motion and parallaxes of about 2 millions of stars, which are the Tycho-2 objects. These numbers are given at the date J2015.0. The data are based on the first 14 months of the operational phase, and they should be seen as very preliminary results.

This release is of high importance, since it represents a major improvement with respect to the catalog Tycho-2, and shows the efficiency of Gaia. We could thus be very confident in the accuracy of the future releases.

In the future

This Data Release 1 is just the first release. Others will come, in which the astrometric data will be accompanied by photometric data. The Data Release 2 is planned for summer 2017, the releases 3 and 4 for 2018 and 2019 respectively, while the final one should come in 2022. This final release shall also include discoveries of Jupiter-like planets out of our Solar System.

At the end, Gaia shall have an astrometric accuracy of 25 micro-arcseconds at the magnitude 15, while Hipparcos reached 1 milli-arcsecond. Reaching such an accuracy is a challenge. For that, the timing must be extremely precise, and second-order relativistic effect of the deviation of the light by the Earth and other object must be considered.

Regarding the parallaxes, i.e. the distance: Hipparcos has given us the parallaxes of 60,000 objects with an accuracy of 20%, while the Gaia Data Release 1 gives us the same information, with the same accuracy, for 1 million objects. The Final Release shall give us 10 millions of parallaxes with an accuracy of 1%, 150 millions of them with an accuracy of 10%, 280 millions of them with an accuracy of 20%. Knowing the distances of stars with such a precision will permit major improvements in the understanding of star clusters and in the structure of the Milky Way.


Some links


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